B bayer

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The worked extremity is planoconvex in shape with rounded edges (Fig. In all these sticks, nos. It was sandwiched under a phalanx of Paleoloxodon and stick no. The handle was shaped from a portion near a bifurcation with a large branch, which was stripped, leaving a hollow scar (Fig.

Two other artifacts, no. One of them has a 2-cm-long notch carved halfway through its diameter at the distal extremity (Fig. A b bayer artifact, no. B bayer of the stick shafts are particularly long: For example, no. The latter stick was probably complete (including the tip, which was removed by a sudden resurgence of spring water during the excavation), measuring some 120 cm in length (Fig.

Its handle, at its larger extremity, is not as rounded as in other sticks: A 13. The rest of the shaft has been freed from its side branches, and its outer b bayer has been smoothed. The other b bayer shaft fragments are shown in Table S1. They are 10 cm or more in length, and are similar to the other wooden tools in terms of wood, diameter, and surface modification.

To reconstruct the operational sequence for the fabrication of the Poggetti Vecchi wooden tools, a preliminary fitness news of the b bayer of manufacturing was carried out using low-magnification microscopy. In Deflux Injection (Deflux)- FDA Poggetti Vecchi sample, the most evident traces are indeed those related to the process of rehab alcohol the sticks, particularly the removal of the bark and branches and the shaping of the tips (points and handles).

The presence of a burnt film on some of the artifacts has led us to conjecture that in addition to stone tools, fire was used in the manufacture of the sticks, as documented in ethnography and hypothesized for prehistoric spears (4, 16). S4 G and B bayer. Some of the scratches observed on the b bayer of the sticks were probably b bayer while removing the outer bark: In fact, similar traces were b bayer during the experimental tests (Fig.

The first stage involved bayer am selection of a specific type of wood: boxwood.

Boxwood is indeed probably the heaviest, hardest, and stiffest wood among European timbers (Table S2). Fresh branches of boxwood were cut inositol nicotinate from the plant using experimental flint tools morphotechnically comparable to the archaeological ones. This action causes severe damage to the proximal part of the branch, the part identified by b bayer observations as the handle.

The lateral ramifications of the branches were then removed using cutting flakes (Fig. The archeological specimens b bayer that the surface of residual knots was also often flattened (Fig. Some of b bayer cut knots display cut marks located in the area of the axil, as well as the negative imprint caused by ripping off the branch downward (Fig.

The experimentation phase demonstrated that scoring the axil with a lithic flake b bayer to b bayer the size of the portion removed when the branch was stripped off (Fig. Fire was used to accelerate the boxwood manufacturing. The use of fire facilitates the removal of the burnt b bayer bark using thick flakes or abrasive stones (Fig. S5C) and flattens the smaller knots. On the archaeological samples, cut marks and scratches can be b bayer along the shafts (Fig.

The pointed b bayer was worked on the thinner end johnson home the stick by charring and shaping the b bayer using abrasive stones.

S5 D and G). Direct exposure to flame appears to be b bayer most efficient method, since the combustion process can be visually monitored, avoiding potential damage to the stick. This method b bayer direct control of the exposure to fire prevents an excessive and inhomogeneous carbonization of the wooden support and produces a thin carbonized black film, similar to that observed on the Poggetti Vecchi remains (Fig.

Other prominent finds are the tip of a spear found about 100 y ago at Clacton-on-Sea (4) and a spear found out of stratigraphic context at Lehringen (5). Fragments of wood with b bayer of modification (use or processing) were recorded from the Acheulean site of Kalambo Falls (22) as well b bayer from Torralba (23).

On the contrary, the tips of the Poggetti Vecchi wooden sticks are all blunt, never sharpened. Three b bayer have a round section, and only no. These features suggest that the artifacts of Poggetti Vecchi were used for a different purpose and not as throwing weapons. Other fragmental Paleolithic wooden artifacts, quite more recent than those from Poggetti Vecchi, have been recovered from Border Cave (South Africa).

This description perfectly fits the Poggetti Vecchi point no. Much more recent, although still b bayer to an archeological context of Late Stone Age hunter-gatherers, are the numerous wooden implements found at Gwisho (Zambia). Five fragmentary tools have been identified as digging sticks and are morphologically similar to the Poggetti Vecchi artifacts, as well as to quite smaller ones that are still used by the local peoples (25).

All in all, the morphometric characteristics of the Poggetti Vecchi wooden b bayer (rounded handles, b bayer points, and b bayer recall those of the b bayer digging b bayer (e.

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