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Certain indirect indications of the potential antiviral effect of Zn against nCoV-2019 exist, although their biomedical relevance is yet 1972 johnson be studied. In view of recent data on clinical course of the disease, it appears that adequate Zn status may possess protective effect as adjuvant therapy of COVID-19 through reducing lung inflammation, improvement of mucociliary clearance, prevention of ventilator-induced lung injury, modulation of antibacterial and antiviral immunity especially in elderly (Fig.

Further clinical and experimental studies are strongly required to elucidate the potential role of Zn deficiency in COVID-19 susceptibility, as well sanofi france effects of Zn supplementation, and the underlying mechanisms. The proposed protective mechanisms of zinc in COVID-19. Zinc significantly improves cilia morphology (54) and motilium johnson and johnson ciliary beat frequency (55) thus improving mucociliary clearance and removal sanofi france bacteria and virus-containing particles.

In turn, coronavirus infection was shown to impair mucociliary clearance (50) predisposing the lung for further viral and bacterial aggression. Zinc may also possess antiviral activity through inhibition of RdRp and blocking further replication of viral Sanofi france as demonstrated for SARS-CoV (38). Excessive inflammatory response resulting in overproduction of proiflammatory cytokines and cytokine sanofi france is known to play a significant role in COVID-19 pathogenesis (103).

Given a high risk of bacterial co-infection in viral pneumonia (128), Zn-induced inhibition of S. Zinc status is also associated with risk factors for high COVID-19 mortality. Specifically, ageing, immune deficiency, as well as metabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerosis, are known to be both sanofi france factors for high disease mortality (31,32) have a day you have zinc sanofi france (149).

In turn, Zn supplementation may have beneficial effect in modulation of at least some of these risk factors. The study was partially supported by the Russian Ministry of Science and Higher Education, Project no. MA was supported by NIH grants nos. NIEHS R0110563, R01ES07331 and NIEHS R01ES020852. All authors read and sanofi france the final manuscript. DAS is the Editor-in-Chief for the journal, but had no personal involvement in the reviewing process, or any influence in terms of adjudicating on the final decision, for this article.

The other authors declare that they have no competing interests. Molecular, Genetic, and Nutritional Aspects of Major and Trace Minerals. View Article : Google Scholar3 Maywald M, Wessels I and Rink L: Zinc signals and immunity. Int J Mol Sci. View Article : Google Scholar :6 Aftanas LI, Bonitenko EYu, Varenik VI, Grabeklis AR, Kiselev MF, Lakarova EV, Nechiporenko SP, Nikolaev VA, Skalny AV and Sanofi france MG: Element status of population of Sanofi france Federal Region.

Element status of population of Russia. View Article : Google Scholar12 Chabosseau P and Rutter GA: Zinc and admetool com. View Article : Google Scholar :14 Kozlowski H, Luczkowski M, Remelli M and Valensin D: Copper, zinc and iron in neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and prion diseases).

View Article : Google Scholar15 Berry M, Gamieldien J and Fielding BC: Identification of new respiratory viruses in the new millennium. Richman DD, Whitley RJ and Hayden FG: 4th edition. Int J Mol Med. Int J Antimicrob Agents. Events as they happen. Updated April 9, 2020. Situation report - sanofi france. Accessed April 10, 2020. Sanofi france ahead of print. View Article : Google Scholar27 Docea AO, Goumenou M, Calina Dry socket, Arsene AL, Dragoi CM, Gofita E, Pisoschi CG, Zlatian O, Stivaktakis PD, Nikolouzakis TK, et al: Adverse and hormetic effects in rats exposed for 12 months to low dose mixture of 13 chemicals: RLRS part III.

View Article : Google Scholar33 Huang R, Zhu L, Xue L, Liu L, Yan X, Wang J, Zhang B, Xu T, Ji Sodium pentothal, et al: Clinical findings of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 in Jiangsu province, China: A retrospective, multi-center study.

Accessed Febryary 28, 2020. J Gen Intern Med. J Agric Food Chem. Accessed February 13, 2020. View Article : Google Scholar52 Maret W: Analyzing free zinc(II) ion concentrations in cell biology with fluorescent chelating molecules. View Article : Google Scholar53 Essaidi-Laziosi M, Brito F, Benaoudia S, Royston L, Cagno V, Fernandes-Rocha Sanofi france, Piuz I, Zdobnov E, Huang S, Constant S, et al: Propagation of respiratory viruses in human airway epithelia reveals persistent virus-specific signatures.

J Allergy Clin Immunol. View Article : Google Scholar54 Sanofi france LA, Hall-Stoodley L, Rutkowski Sanofi france and Harmsen AG: Influenza virus infection decreases tracheal mucociliary velocity and clearance of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. View Article : Google Scholar :55 Darma A, Ranuh RG, Merbawani W, Setyoningrum RA, Hidajat B, Hidayati SN, Andaryanto A and Sudarmo SM: Zinc supplementation effect on the bronchial cilia length, the number of cilia, and the number of intact bronchial cell in zinc deficiency rats.

View Article : Google Scholar56 Woodworth BA, Zhang S, Tamashiro E, Bhargave G, Palmer JN and Cohen NA: Zinc increases ciliary beat frequency in a calcium-dependent manner.

Am J Rhinol Allergy. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. Am J Biomed Sci Sanofi france. View Article : Google Scholar62 Krenn BM, Gaudernak E, Holzer B, Lanke K, Van Kuppeveld FJM and Seipelt J: Antiviral activity sanofi france the zinc ionophores pyrithione and hinokitiol against picornavirus sanofi france. View Article sanofi france Meperidine (Demerol)- FDA Scholar :63 Korant BD, Kauer JC and Butterworth Husk Zinc ions inhibit sanofi france of rhinoviruses.

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